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innobackupex备份工具

2020-08-14

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NSD DBA1 DAY07

  1. innobackupex备份工具

1 innobackupex备份工具

1.1 问题

  • 安装percona软件包

  • innobackupex完整备份、增量备份操作。

  • 恢复数据

1.2 步骤

实现此案例需要按照如下步骤进行。

步骤一:安装XtraBackup软件包

1)了解软件包描述信息

  1. [root@dbsvr1 pub]# rpm -qpi percona-xtrabackup-24-2.4.6-2.el7.x86_64.rpm

  2. Name : percona-xtrabackup-24

  3. Version : 2.4.6

  4. Release : 2.el7

  5. Architecture: x86_64

  6. Install Date: (not installed)

  7. Group : Applications/Databases

  8. Size : 32416340

  9. License : GPLv2

  10. Signature : DSA/SHA1, 2017年02月27日 星期一 20时28分17秒, Key ID 1c4cbdcdcd2efd2a

  11. Source RPM : percona-xtrabackup-24-2.4.6-2.el7.src.rpm

  12. Build Date : 2017年02月27日 星期一 20时27分21秒

  13. Build Host : vps-centos7-x64-01.ci.percona.com

  14. Relocations : (not relocatable)

  15. URL : http://www.percona.com/software/percona-xtrabackup

  16. Summary : XtraBackup online backup for MySQL / InnoDB

  17. Description :

  18. Percona XtraBackup is OpenSource online (non-blockable) backup solution for InnoDB and XtraDB engines

2)安装依赖包perl-DBD-MySQL perl-Digest-MD5 libev

使用RHEL 7自带的即可,yum方式安装:

  1. [root@dbsvr1 pub]# yum -y install perl-DBD-MySQL perl-Digest-MD5

  2. libev使用网上找的rpm包 libev-4.15-1.el6.rf.x86_64.rpm //该包由讲师提供

  3. [root@dbsvr1 pub]#rpm –ivh libev-4.15-1.el6.rf.x86_64.rpm

如果未安装这些依赖包,则直接安装percona-xtrabackup时会报错:

代码
 

3)安装percona-xtrabackup

  1. [root@dbsvr1 pub]#rpm -ivh percona-xtrabackup-*.rpm

  2. 警告:percona-xtrabackup-24-2.4.6-2.el7.x86_64.rpm: 头V4 DSA/SHA1 Signature, 密钥 ID cd2efd2a: NOKEY

  3. 准备中... ################################# [100%]

  4. 正在升级/安装...

  5. 1:percona-xtrabackup-24-2.4.6-2.el7################################# [ 33%]

  6. 2:percona-xtrabackup-test-24-2.4.6-################################# [ 67%]

  7. 3:percona-xtrabackup-24-debuginfo-2################################# [100%]

4)确认安装的主要程序/脚本

  1. [root@dbsvr1 pub]# rpm -ql percona-xtrabackup-24-2.4.6-2.el7.x86_64

  2. /usr/bin/innobackupex

  3. /usr/bin/xbcloud

  4. /usr/bin/xbcloud_osenv

  5. /usr/bin/xbcrypt

  6. /usr/bin/xbstream

  7. /usr/bin/xtrabackup

  8. /usr/share/doc/percona-xtrabackup-24-2.4.6

  9. /usr/share/doc/percona-xtrabackup-24-2.4.6/COPYING

  10. /usr/share/man/man1/innobackupex.1.gz

  11. /usr/share/man/man1/xbcrypt.1.gz

  12. /usr/share/man/man1/xbstream.1.gz

  13. /usr/share/man/man1/xtrabackup.1.gz

步骤二:innobackupex完整备份、增量备份操作

--host 主机名

--port 3306

--user 用户名

--password 密码

--databases="库名"

--databases="库1 库2"

--databases="库.表"

--no-timestamp 不用日期命名备份文件存储的子目录,使用备份的数据库名做备份目录名

--no-timestmap 不使用日期命名备份目录名

1)做一个完整备份

默认情况下,备份文件存储的子目录会用日期命名,

innobackupex作为客户端工具,以mysql协议连入mysqld,将数据备份到/backup文件夹:

  1. [root@dbsvr1 ~]# innobackupex --user=root --password=1234567 /backup/mysql –no-timestamp

  2. 170425 11:05:44 innobackupex: Starting the backup operation


  3. IMPORTANT: Please check that the backup run completes successfully.

  4. At the end of a successful backup run innobackupex

  5. prints "completed OK!".


  6. Unrecognized character \x01; marked by <-- HERE after <-- HERE near column 1 at - line 1374.

  7. 170425 11:05:45 Connecting to MySQL server host: localhost, user: root, password: set, port: not set, socket: not set

  8. Using server version 5.7.17

  9. innobackupex version 2.4.6 based on MySQL server 5.7.13 Linux (x86_64) (revision id: 8ec05b7)

  10. xtrabackup: uses posix_fadvise().

  11. xtrabackup: cd to /var/lib/mysql

  12. xtrabackup: open files limit requested 0, set to 1024

  13. xtrabackup: using the following InnoDB configuration:

  14. xtrabackup: innodb_data_home_dir = .

  15. xtrabackup: innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:12M:autoextend

  16. xtrabackup: innodb_log_group_home_dir = ./

  17. xtrabackup: innodb_log_files_in_group = 2

  18. xtrabackup: innodb_log_file_size = 50331648

  19. InnoDB: Number of pools: 1

  20. 170425 11:05:45 >> log scanned up to (2543893)

  21. xtrabackup: Generating a list of tablespaces

  22. InnoDB: Allocated tablespace ID 2 for mysql/plugin, old maximum was 0

  23. 170425 11:05:45 [01] Copying ./ibdata1 to /backup/ibdata1

  24. 170425 11:05:45 [01] ...done

  25. 170425 11:05:46 [01] Copying ./mysql/plugin.ibd to /backup/mysql/plugin.ibd

  26. 170425 11:05:46 [01] ...done

  27. 170425 11:05:46 [01] Copying ./mysql/servers.ibd to /backup/mysql/servers.ibd

  28. 170425 11:05:46 [01] ...done

  29. 170425 11:05:46 [01] Copying ./mysql/help_topic.ibd to /backup/mysql/help_topic.ibd

  30. 170425 11:05:46 [01] ...done

  31. 170425 11:05:46 >> log scanned up to (2543893)

  32. .. ..

  33. 170425 11:06:00 [01] Copying ./sys/x@0024waits_global_by_latency.frm to /backup/sys/x@0024waits_global_by_latency.frm

  34. 170425 11:06:00 [01] ...done

  35. 170425 11:06:00 [01] Copying ./sys/session_ssl_status.frm to /backup/sys/session_ssl_status.frm

  36. 170425 11:06:00 [01] ...done

  37. 170425 11:06:00 [01] Copying ./db1/db.opt to /backup/db1/db.opt

  38. 170425 11:06:00 [01] ...done

  39. 170425 11:06:00 [01] Copying ./db1/tb1.frm to /backup/db1/tb1.frm

  40. 170425 11:06:00 [01] ...done

  41. 170425 11:06:00 Finished backing up non-InnoDB tables and files

  42. 170425 11:06:00 Executing FLUSH NO_WRITE_TO_BINLOG ENGINE LOGS...

  43. xtrabackup: The latest check point (for incremental): '2543884'

  44. xtrabackup: Stopping log copying thread.

  45. .170425 11:06:00 >> log scanned up to (2543893)


  46. 170425 11:06:00 Executing UNLOCK TABLES

  47. 170425 11:06:00 All tables unlocked

  48. 170425 11:06:00 [00] Copying ib_buffer_pool to /backup/ib_buffer_pool

  49. 170425 11:06:00 [00] ...done

  50. 170425 11:06:00 Backup created in directory '/backup/'

  51. 170425 11:06:00 [00] Writing backup-my.cnf

  52. 170425 11:06:00 [00] ...done

  53. 170425 11:06:00 [00] Writing xtrabackup_info

  54. 170425 11:06:00 [00] ...done

  55. xtrabackup: Transaction log of lsn (2543884) to (2543893) was copied.

  56. 170425 11:06:01 completed OK

确认备份好的文件数据:

  1. [root@dbsvr1 ~]#ls /backup/

  2. backup-my.cnf ib_buffer_pool mysql sys xtrabackup_info

  3. db1 ibdata1 performance_schema xtrabackup_checkpoints xtrabackup_logfile

2)做一个增量备份(基于前一步的完整备份)

随意做一些新增或更改库表的操作,比如在db1库中新建一个mytb的表:

  1. mysql> USE db1;

  2. Database changed

  3. mysql> CREATE TABLE mytb(id int(4), name varchar(24));

  4. Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.38 sec)

  5. mysql> INSERT INTO tb1 VALUES

  6. -> (1,'bon'),

  7. -> (2,'bo'),

  8. Query OK, 2 rows affected (0.12 sec)

  9. Records: 2 Duplicates: 0 Warnings: 0

  10. mysql> SELECT * FROM tb1;

  11. +------+------+

  12. | id | name |

  13. +------+------+

  14. | 1 | bob |

  15. | 2 | bo |

  16. +------+------+

  17. 2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

以前一次保存到/backup的完整备份为基础,做一个增量备份,保存到/incr01/,指定增量备份参照的基本目录(完整备份目录)需要用到选项--incremental-basedir。相关操作如下:

  1. [root@dbsvr1 ~]# innobackupex --user=root --password=12345678 --incremental /incr01 --incremental-basedir=/backup/ --no-timestamp

  2. 170425 11:30:14 innobackupex: Starting the backup operation


  3. IMPORTANT: Please check that the backup run completes successfully.

  4. At the end of a successful backup run innobackupex

  5. prints "completed OK!".


  6. Unrecognized character \x01; marked by <-- HERE after <-- HERE near column 1 at - line 1374.

  7. 170425 11:30:14 Connecting to MySQL server host: localhost, user: root, password: set, port: not set, socket: not set

  8. Using server version 5.7.17

  9. innobackupex version 2.4.6 based on MySQL server 5.7.13 Linux (x86_64) (revision id: 8ec05b7)

  10. incremental backup from 2543884 is enabled.

  11. xtrabackup: uses posix_fadvise().

  12. xtrabackup: cd to /var/lib/mysql

  13. xtrabackup: open files limit requested 0, set to 1024

  14. xtrabackup: using the following InnoDB configuration:

  15. xtrabackup: innodb_data_home_dir = .

  16. xtrabackup: innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:12M:autoextend

  17. xtrabackup: innodb_log_group_home_dir = ./

  18. xtrabackup: innodb_log_files_in_group = 2

  19. xtrabackup: innodb_log_file_size = 50331648

  20. InnoDB: Number of pools: 1

  21. 170425 11:30:14 >> log scanned up to (2549933)

  22. xtrabackup: Generating a list of tablespaces

  23. InnoDB: Allocated tablespace ID 2 for mysql/plugin, old maximum was 0

  24. xtrabackup: using the full scan for incremental backup

  25. 170425 11:30:15 [01] Copying ./ibdata1 to /incr01/ibdata1.delta

  26. 170425 11:30:15 [01] ...done

  27. 170425 11:30:15 >> log scanned up to (2549933)

  28. 170425 11:30:15 [01] Copying ./mysql/plugin.ibd to /incr01/mysql/plugin.ibd.delta

  29. 170425 11:30:15 [01] ...done

  30. ... ...

  31. 170425 11:30:35 Executing UNLOCK TABLES

  32. 170425 11:30:35 All tables unlocked

  33. 170425 11:30:35 [00] Copying ib_buffer_pool to /incr01/ib_buffer_pool

  34. 170425 11:30:35 [00] ...done

  35. 170425 11:30:35 Backup created in directory '/incr01/'

  36. 170425 11:30:35 [00] Writing backup-my.cnf

  37. 170425 11:30:35 [00] ...done

  38. 170425 11:30:35 [00] Writing xtrabackup_info

  39. 170425 11:30:35 [00] ...done

  40. xtrabackup: Transaction log of lsn (2549924) to (2549933) was copied.

  41. 170425 11:30:35 completed OK!

确认备份好的文件数据:

  1. [root@dbsvr1 ~]# ls /incr01/

  2. backup-my.cnf ib_buffer_pool ibdata1.meta performance_schema xtrabackup_checkpoints xtrabackup_logfile

  3. db1 ibdata1.delta mysql sys

对比完整备份、增量备份的大小:

  1. [root@dbsvr1 ~]# du -sh /backup/ /incr01/

  2. 142M    /backup/ //完整备份的大小

  3. 3.5M    /incr01/ //增量备份的大小

步骤三:恢复数据

通过XtraBackup工具备份的数据库目录,若要恢复到另一个MySQL服务器,需要先做一个“--apply-log --redo-only ”的准备操作。

1)准备恢复“完整备份”

完成准备以后,最终/backup可用来重建MySQL服务器。这种情况下,需要先做一个“--apply-log --redo-only ”的准备操作,以确保数据一致性:

  1. [root@dbsvr1 ~]#innobackupex --user=root --password=12345678 --apply-log --redo-only /backup/

  2. 170425 11:42:19 innobackupex: Starting the apply-log operation


  3. IMPORTANT: Please check that the apply-log run completes successfully.

  4. At the end of a successful apply-log run innobackupex

  5. prints "completed OK!".


  6. innobackupex version 2.4.6 based on MySQL server 5.7.13 Linux (x86_64) (revision id: 8ec05b7)

  7. xtrabackup: cd to /backup/

  8. xtrabackup: This target seems to be already prepared.

  9. InnoDB: Number of pools: 1

  10. xtrabackup: notice: xtrabackup_logfile was already used to '--prepare'.

  11. xtrabackup: using the following InnoDB configuration for recovery:

  12. xtrabackup: innodb_data_home_dir = .

  13. xtrabackup: innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:12M:autoextend

  14. xtrabackup: innodb_log_group_home_dir = .

  15. xtrabackup: innodb_log_files_in_group = 2

  16. xtrabackup: innodb_log_file_size = 50331648

  17. xtrabackup: using the following InnoDB configuration for recovery:

  18. xtrabackup: innodb_data_home_dir = .

  19. xtrabackup: innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:12M:autoextend

  20. xtrabackup: innodb_log_group_home_dir = .

  21. xtrabackup: innodb_log_files_in_group = 2

  22. xtrabackup: innodb_log_file_size = 50331648

  23. xtrabackup: Starting InnoDB instance for recovery.

  24. xtrabackup: Using 104857600 bytes for buffer pool (set by --use-memory parameter)

  25. InnoDB: PUNCH HOLE support available

  26. InnoDB: Mutexes and rw_locks use GCC atomic builtins

  27. InnoDB: Uses event mutexes

  28. InnoDB: GCC builtin __atomic_thread_fence() is used for memory barrier

  29. InnoDB: Compressed tables use zlib 1.2.7

  30. InnoDB: Number of pools: 1

  31. InnoDB: Not using CPU crc32 instructions

  32. InnoDB: Initializing buffer pool, total size = 100M, instances = 1, chunk size = 100M

  33. InnoDB: Completed initialization of buffer pool

  34. InnoDB: page_cleaner coordinator priority: -20

  35. InnoDB: Highest supported file format is Barracuda.


  36. xtrabackup: starting shutdown with innodb_fast_shutdown = 1

  37. InnoDB: Starting shutdown...

  38. InnoDB: Shutdown completed; log sequence number 2544177

  39. InnoDB: Number of pools: 1

  40. 170425 11:42:20 completed OK!

准备恢复“增量备份”

  1. [root@dbsvr1 ~]#innobackupex --user=root --password=12345678 --apply-log --redo-only /backup/ --incremental-dir=/incr01

  2. 170425 11:42:55 innobackupex: Starting the apply-log operation


  3. IMPORTANT: Please check that the apply-log run completes successfully.

  4. At the end of a successful apply-log run innobackupex

  5. prints "completed OK!".


  6. innobackupex version 2.4.6 based on MySQL server 5.7.13 Linux (x86_64) (revision id: 8ec05b7)

  7. incremental backup from 2543884 is enabled.

  8. xtrabackup: cd to /backup/

  9. xtrabackup: This target seems to be already prepared with --apply-log-only.

  10. InnoDB: Number of pools: 1

  11. xtrabackup: xtrabackup_logfile detected: size=8388608, start_lsn=(2549924)

  12. xtrabackup: using the following InnoDB configuration for recovery:

  13. xtrabackup: innodb_data_home_dir = .

  14. xtrabackup: innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:12M:autoextend

  15. xtrabackup: innodb_log_group_home_dir = /incr01/

  16. xtrabackup: innodb_log_files_in_group = 1

  17. xtrabackup: innodb_log_file_size = 8388608

  18. xtrabackup: Generating a list of tablespaces

  19. InnoDB: Allocated tablespace ID 2 for mysql/plugin, old maximum was 0

  20. xtrabackup: page size for /incr01//ibdata1.delta is 16384 bytes

  21. Applying /incr01//ibdata1.delta to ./ibdata1...

  22. ... ...

  23. 170425 11:43:09 [01] Copying /incr01/performance_schema/global_status.frm to ./performance_schema/global_status.frm

  24. 170425 11:43:09 [01] ...done

  25. 170425 11:43:09 [01] Copying /incr01/performance_schema/session_status.frm to ./performance_schema/session_status.frm

  26. 170425 11:43:09 [01] ...done

  27. 170425 11:43:09 [00] Copying /incr01//xtrabackup_info to ./xtrabackup_info

  28. 170425 11:43:09 [00] ...done

  29. 170425 11:43:10 completed OK!

2)关闭mysql服务,并将/var/lib/mysql/下的文件删除,假设数据被删除。

  1. [root@dbsvr1 ~]#systemctl stop mysqld

  2. [root@dbsvr1 ~]#rm -rf /var/lib/mysql

3)恢复“完整备份+增量备份”

完成准备以后,最终仍然是/backup用来重建MySQL服务器,但这种情况下需提前合并相关增量备份的数据

  1. [root@dbsvr1 ~]# innobackupex --user=root --password=12345678 --copy-back /backup/

  2. ... ...

  3. 170425 11:51:39 [01] Copying ./performance_schema/global_status.frm to /var/lib/mysql/performance_schema/glo.frm

  4. 170425 11:51:39 [01] ...done

  5. 170425 11:51:39 [01] Copying ./performance_schema/session_status.frm to /var/lib/mysql/performance_schema/seus.frm

  6. 170425 11:51:39 [01] ...done

  7. 170425 11:51:39 [01] Copying ./ib_buffer_pool to /var/lib/mysql/ib_buffer_pool

  8. 170425 11:51:39 [01] ...done

  9. 170425 11:51:39 [01] Copying ./ibtmp1 to /var/lib/mysql/ibtmp1

  10. 170425 11:51:39 [01] ...done

  11. 170425 11:51:39 [01] Copying ./xtrabackup_info to /var/lib/mysql/xtrabackup_info

  12. 170425 11:51:39 [01] ...done

  13. 170425 11:51:39 completed OK!

4)修改/var/lib/mysql/下文件属主与属组,查看数据:

恢复后,/var/lib/mysql下文件属组与属主皆为root,需要更改为mysql

  1. [root@dbsvr1 ~]#chown -R mysql:mysql /var/lib/mysql

  2. [root@dbsvr1 ~]#systemctl start mysqld.service

  3. [root@dbsvr1 ~]#mysql -uroot -p12345678 -e "select * from db1.tb1"

  4. mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.

  5. +------+------+

  6. | id | name |

  7. +------+------+

  8. | 1 | bob |

  9. | 2 | bo |

  10. +------+------+

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